By Walter H. Fertl
Petroleum formation pressures
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Additional info for Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources
As suggested by Kalinko (1967),it is economical to exploit such gas pools using one or two wells. Salt diapirism. Salt is known to behave plastically. During short-time tests at elevated temperatures, halite single crystals (Handin and Hager, 1958) flowed without further stress increase when the yield stress was reached. From field observations it is known that salt will behave plastically over a long period of time at lower temperatures and stresses than required during short periods in the laboratory (Muehlberger, 1959;Trusheim, 1960).
139kg cm-2 m-'1 . The earthquakes have been precisely located since September, 1969, by a network of 14 stations. The principal seismic activity occurs over a depth interval of 7-4 km along a vertical fault which cuts across the field. The earthquake epicenters are located on the south margin and die out toward the interior of the field, disappearing where the pore pressure is at or below the normal hydrostatic gradient. Focal-plane solutions indicate rightlateral strike-slip faulting. , 1970).
Soviet investigators have attempted to explain this condition as being a result of the differences in density of the minerals making up the geologic sequence. 11. R. (after Fertl, 1971). ) 14 ABNORMAL FORMATION PRESSURE ENVIRONMENTS Abnormally high formation pressures (surpressures) Abnormally high pore fluid pressures are encountered worldwide in formations ranging in age from the Cenozoic era (Pleistocene age) to as old as the Paleozoic era (Cambrian age). e. permeable, fluid communicating formations allow establishment and/or reestablishment of hydrostatic conditions.