By Günter Obe, H.H. Evans, D. Frankenberg, M. Frankenberg-Schwager, E. Gebhart, W. Köhnlein, R.H. Nussbaum, D.G. Papworth, J.R.K. Savage, R.-D. Wegner
Applied genetic examine, genetic toxicology and mutation study examine the mutagenicity and cancerogenicity of chemical substances and different brokers. everlasting mutation in genes and chromosomes, will be caused via a plethora of brokers, together with ionizing and nonionizing radiations, chemical compounds, and viruses. one of the features mentioned through Advances in Mutagenesis Research are (1) the certainty of the molecular mechanisms resulting in mutations, and (2) the prevention of a inconsiderate advent of mutagenic brokers into the environment.
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W. H. Freeman, New York, p 102 Brown R, Thacker J (1984) The nature of mutants induced by ionising radiation in cultured hamster cells. I. Isolation and initial characterisation of spontaneous, ionising radiation-induced, and ethyl methanesulphonate-induced mutants resistant to 6-thioguanine. Mutat Res 129:269-281 Charlton DE, Nikjoo H, Humm JL (1989) Calculation of initial yields of single- and double-strand breaks in cell nuclei from electrons, protons and alpha particles. Int J Radiat BioI 56: 1-19 Chen DJ, Strniste GF, Tokita N (1984) The genotoxicity of alpha particles in human embryonic skin fibroblasts.
1985; Hieber et al. 1987; Hei et al. 1988a; Hall et al. 1989; Suzuki et al. 1989). 5 Gy a-radiation from 238 pU (Robertson et al. 1983). Transformation has been induced by doses of charged particles which cause very little cell killing (Hei et al. 1988a). The RBE values for transformation have been found to range from 3-20 (Robertson et al. 1983; Hieberet al. 1987; Hall et al. 1989; Suzuki et al. 1989): The RBE values were higher for low doses than high doses (Hieber et al. 1987; Hall et al. 1989) and were dependent upon LET values, reaching a maximum at 100-200 keY/11m (Yang et al.
7 Characterization of Mutational Lesions Induced by Alpha Radiation Evidence cited above indicates that the predominant types of mutational lesion induced by a-particle irradiation (or irradiation with particles of similar LET) consist of intergenic deletions and rearrangements. Biochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular analyses of these mutants has yielded results in agreement with this conclusion. In 1978 Cox and Masson reported that 40% of HGPRT mutants of normal human fibroblasts exposed to high-LET radiation showed aberrations in the X-chromosome.